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Wednesday, December 22, 2010

The Superbug is stated to be Resistance to the most powerful Antibiotics
CARD11: New "Officer" in Infection control Army

Infectious Diseases Institute has the mandate to coordinate and follow up the broad prevention efforts against HIV and STIs is happening nationally, regionally and locally.

HIV and sexually transmitted infections, STIs, can have major consequences for the individual and society. The infections can be prevented through knowledge dissemination, voluntary counseling and testing. It preventive work against HIV and STIs in Sweden will be extensive and in society. The work is based on the national strategy adopted by the Swedish parliament, that the bill 2005/06: 60, National Strategy on HIV / AIDS and other communicable diseases .

The STI is referred to HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts (HPV), herpes, and hepatitis. STI Sexually Transmitted Infections means and is a generic term for infections which are mainly transmitted sexually.

Operators must work together to achieve goals

The health service, schools and different parts of utbildningssytemet, NGOs and several government agencies are key players in the prevention and support work. They should work together to increase awareness of HIV and other STIs, and provide information on the consequences of having unprotected sex.Operators should also promote increased condom use and increased availability of condoms and to society provides conditions that promote sexual health. The work is often integrated with work on sexual health and in the field of sexuality and relationships in general, such as at school.

Division of HIV prevention and sexual health

Efforts to prevent HIV and STIs is done nationally, regionally and locally through a variety of stakeholders. From 1 July 2010, the Infectious Diseases Institute of the overall national, broad mandate to prevent HIV and STIs. The work is performed on the device for HIV prevention and sexual health. The unit's work includes

  • plan, coordinate and follow up on the broad health promotion and prevention
  • develop the area, initiate action
  • generating and disseminating knowledge and providing support for method development
  • reporting developments, including the responsibility of the Swedish reporting to the UN
  • develop a knowledge base and action plans
  • implement some communication activities
  • allocate the state funds in the area, currently over 145 million, government grants 2.8,
  • be the secretariat function for the National Hivrådet.

Preventive work is in large part on communication with the population, and to particularly vulnerable groups, so-called prevention groups. In addition, the need to policy makers and various groups within the profession support and guidance. In addition to the national strategy (2005/06: 60) healthy intentions regarding knowledge sharing and voluntary counseling includes prevention work, including infectious disease under the Communicable Diseases Act (2004:168), testing, treatment and contact tracing of actual infection. Welfare is responsible for coordinating the prevention of communicable diseases.

The entire population - prevention groups is a priority

Anyone can get HIV or an STI. The entire population is also subject to the prevention of HIV and STIs, as well as certain blood diseases. Some social groups are at particular risk or Especially vulnerable. These groups should be prioritized in prevention. Prevention groups are under the national strategy (Prop. 6.5: 60)

  • men who have sex with men (MSM)
  • people with drug injection
  • people of foreign origin
  • youth and young adults
  • Foreign travelers
  • pregnant women
  • people who buy and sell sex.

The work includes persons living with HIV.

There is a broad work any number of players to reach all these different groups.But the work also needs to be coordinated.

State appropriation

In order to achieve as broad a job as possible and to adapt it for different parts of the country and the needs of different groups is a state grant to be distributed annually. SMI manages the state appropriation 2:8.

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

First two cases of NDM-1 confirmed in Korea.

The Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre banned on Monday (6) its NICU to new patients until Friday, after two babies were infected by the bacterium Acinetobacter.

According to the infectious disease and coordinator of the Hospital Infection Control of Hospital, Rodrigo Pires dos Santos, the measure was taken for the unit, which has 20 beds, is disinfected.

"We closed [the unit] for security, which does not mean that we are experiencing an outbreak. The institution has a comprehensive surveillance system, so we can track infections quickly," he said.

As an infectious disease specialist, to sanitize the ICU is necessary to reallocate the remaining three beds for patients who are unemployed. According to Santos, the two children are isolated in another area, pass well and controlled the infection.

The doctor said that because of the ban on the NICU, the obstetrics center is also not receiving new mothers.

They are forwarded by the central beds of the capital city to other hospitals also cater for the SUS (Unified Health System). In 2009, the HCPA 3443 deliveries took place.

The bacterium Acinetobacter can cause infections in patients with low immunity, can worsen their clinical condition and to bring him to death, according to the infectious disease.

Multidrug-Resistant-Tuberculosis and Drugs

Microbes Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance

To reduce the threat of Microbial Resistance Prevention of infection is the key element.

hand hygiene

Antimicrobials can also be used outside human medicine like Industry Treatment of bacterial disease in Animals, fish and Plants.

Your smoking may cause Ear Infection of your Child.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Indo-Asian scenario of microbes, infections, antibiotics and resistance - By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

Hospitals are gearing up for killer bug in Singapore
  BEIJING, Dec. 3, Changsha Xinhua antimicrobial resistance problem is the 21st century, one of the biggest health problems, multiple drug-resistant strains have been widely popular in the world, more than the recent "super bacteria" caused reported cases of great public concern.

  3, Chinese Pharmacological Society Clinical Pharmacology Professional Committee of Professor Li Yun multi-drug resistant bacterial infection in Hunan Province cum intravenous drug control deployment of quality management standards focus on the training conference, "superbugs" will not spread in the general population, the public do not have to panic.

  According to experts, the "super bacteria" is not a new name, but the name of a class of bacteria, this type of common bacteria with strong resistance, and as time goes on, "super bacteria" in the list will be increasingly longer.

  Professor Li Yun said that at present there are many countries in the international NDM-1 has been found to carry bacteria resistant gene, but mostly because the conditions of such drug-resistant human pathogens or normal flora bacteria are not normally within the general population in the community setting spread. This pan-resistant bacteria mainly through the dissemination of the hospital environment and medical activities, the hospital if it is found in patients with resistant bacteria were detected, should start active monitoring, protection and disinfection to strengthen quarantine measures to contain or reduce the spread of opportunities. She said, "super bacteria" appearance, suggesting that irrational use of antibiotics has been clinically more serious. At present, the type and quantity of bacteria increased rapidly, due to multiple drug resistant hospital infections have become serious threats to patient safety.

  Ministry of Health, 2009 National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring Network (Mohnarin) based network monitoring results and common analysis of drug resistance in clinical isolates also showed that the overall bacterial resistance is more serious and more common phenomenon of bacterial resistance; bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were there is resistance to maintain a high degree of antibacterial activity of bacterial drug less; some long-term use fewer drugs, such as fosfomycin, doxycycline and other antibacterial effects of some bacteria stronger and so on.

  Therefore, experts advise, to effectively control multi-drug resistant infections, thought to enhance awareness and increase the level of medical technology at the same time, the most important aspect is to strengthen the management and supervision, and strengthen the quality control of clinical medicine, clinical use of drugs to enhance information management.

  It is reported that the Ministry of Health in Beijing, Shanghai, 19 sentinel hospitals in China started monitoring "super bacteria." Department of Health commissioned the present affiliated to Hunan Xiangya Hospital of Hunan Province, the three clinical drug quality control center launched the "clinical treatment and monitoring of bacterial resistance," the work started in March this year, direct reporting network.
  Of: Liuzhu Liang Guoqing (Source: China News)
Germicidal soap can increase the risk of allergy and hay fever in children and adolescents under 18 years. New research shows that soaps containing triclosan could lead to such a risk, reported Swedish Television's Science News. The researchers behind the study has examined urine samples from about 5000 people, both adults and children who participated in the American health survey: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

- This reinforces the "hygiene hypothesis", which means that the appropriate amount of bacteria needed to strengthen and develop our immune system. If you live in a very clean environment, there are some bacteria that challenge our immune system, and then it will be weaker, says Dr. Allison Aiello, who is one of the researchers behind the study.

Indian Antibiotic Resistance Scenario - 2008 (by A.J. Tamhankar)

From the Scientific Journals


-Antibiotic resistance calls for better diagnostic labs.
-Antibiotic resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in India.
-Antibiotic resistance pattern of group-a beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from north Indian children.

-Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special reference to India.
-Incidence of metallo beta lactamase producing Pseudomonas
aeruginosa in ICU patients.
-Estimation of faecal carriage of Clostridium difficile in patients
with ulcerative colitis using RT-PCR.

-Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase from clinical isolates in Davangere.
-A study on nosocomial pathogens in ICU with special reference to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii harbouring multiple plasmids.
-Enterococcal infections & antimicrobial resistance.
-Changing pattern of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in a tertiary care hospital: A 5 year retrospective study.
-Antibiotic sensitivity pattern in cases of enteric fever.
-Functional assignment to JEV proteins using SVM.
-High rate of mutation K103N causing resistance to nevirapine.
-Increased prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase producers in neonatal septicaemic cases.
-Correlation between biofilm production and multiple drug resistance in imipenem resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.
-Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates producing VEB-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
-Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against second-line drugs using the Bactec MGIT 960 System.
-Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA252).
-Study of metallo-beta-lactamase production in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
-Occurrence of ESBL & Amp-C b-lactamases & susceptibility to newer antimicrobial agents in complicated UTI.
-Pneumonia in a traveller coming back from Asia.
-Rising prevalence of enteric fever due to multidrug-resistant Salmonella.
-Risk factors for antibiotic-resistant E. coli in children in a rural area.
-Status of high level aminoglycoside resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.
-Synergy of gatifloxacin with cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam against resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
-The cost-effectiveness of typhoid Vi vaccination programs.
-The influence of glucose added urine on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of various antibiotics.
-Trend of antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae strains from East Delhi.
-Triple therapy-based targeted nanoparticles for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.
-Tigecycline in-vitro susceptibility and antibiotics' fitness for gram-negative pathogens.
-Antibiotic resistance pattern of group-a beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from north Indian children.
-Detection and identification of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
-Changing characteristics of Vibrio cholerae: emergence of multidrug resistance and non-O1, non-O139 serogroups.
-Dental therapeutic systems.
-Incidence of metallo beta lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ICU patients.
-Antibiotic prescribing practices in primary and secondary health care facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India.
-Mycobacterium tuberculosis interactome analysis unravels potential pathways to drug resistance.
-TEM & SHV genes in extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella species beta their antimicrobial resistance pattern.
-TargetTB: a target identification pipeline for Mycobacterium tuberculosis through an interactome, reactome and genome-scale structural analysis.
-Detection of virulence genes in Vibrio cholerae isolated from aquatic environment in Kerala, Southern India.
-Bacterial persistence: some new insights into an old phenomenon.
-Down regulation of gyrase A gene expression in E. coli by antisense ribozymes using RT-PCR.
-Novel mutations in emb B gene of ethambutol resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a preliminary report.
-A potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from Dioscorea bulbifera L. against multidrug-resistant bacteria.
-RpoN gene, RAPD profile, antimicrobial resistance and plasmids of Vibrio anguillarum isolates from vibriosis infected Penaeus monodon.
-Novel and potent oxazolidinone antibacterials featuring 3-indolylglyoxamide substituents.
-Enhancement of the efficacy of erythromycin in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacterial pathogens.
-Zinc and antibiotic resistance: metallo-beta-lactamases and their synthetic analogues.
-Changing trends in bacteriology of peritonsillar abscess.
-Incidence of bacterial enteropathogens among hospitalized diarrhea patients from Orissa, India.
-Moonlighting function of glutamate racemase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: racemization and DNA gyrase inhibition are two independent activities of the enzyme.
-Substituted 3-((Z)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) vinyl)-4H-chromen-4-ones as novel anti-MRSA agents: synthesis, SAR, and in-vitro assessment.
-Antimicrobial stewardship in institutions and office practices.
-Tigecycline: a critical update.
-Cefoxitin disc diffusion test for detection of meticillin-resistant staphylococci.
-In-vitro antimycobacterial drug susceptibility testing of non-tubercular mycobacteria by tetrazolium microplate assay.
-Differential expression of ompC and ompF in multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri by aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos, altering its susceptibility toward beta-lactam antibiotics.
-Comparative bacteriology of acute and chronic dacryocystitis.
-Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: current challenges and threats.
-Prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance in gram positive organisms in a tertiary care centre.
-Assessment of pheromone response in biofilm forming clinical isolates of high level gentamicin resistant Enterococcus faecalis.
-Incidence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diabetes and cancer patients.
-Evaluation of rapid MTT tube method for detection of drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rifampicin and isoniazid.
-Phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates by using the lower limit of recommended inter-disk distance.
-Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase and AmpC beta lactamase producers among Escherichia coli isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.
-Empiric antibiotic therapy in children with community-acquired pneumonia.
-Comparison of the radiometric BACTEC 460 TB culture system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium for the isolation of mycobacteria in cutaneous tuberculosis and their drug susceptibility pattern.
-Molecular cloning, overexpression and biochemical characterization of hypothetical beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.
-Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella species isolated from epidemic and endemic cases of shigellosis in India.
-Epidemiological evidence of multidrug-resistant Shigella sonnei colonization in India by sentinel surveillance in a Japanese quarantine station.
-Aminoglycoside-resistance mechanisms in multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates.
-Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from peripheral health centres and STD clinic attendees of a tertiary care centre in India.
-Novel structural analogues of piperine as inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.
-Salmonella enterica Serotype typhi in Kuwait and its reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.
-Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of 4-[5-(substituted phenyl)-4, 5-dihydro-3-isoxazolyl]-2-methylphenols.
-Observations on carbapenem resistance by minimum inhibitory concentration in nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter species: an experience at a tertiary care hospital in North India.
-A simple and effective approach for the treatment of chronic wound infections caused by multiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli.
-Cefepime and its role in pediatric infections.
-Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of resistance phenotypes of Neisseria gonorrheae in India.

-Stationary phase induced alterations in mycobacterial RNA polymerase assembly: A cue to its phenotypic resistance towards rifampicin.
-Epidemiology, etiology, and diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in Asian countries.
-Involvement of O8-antigen in altering beta-lactam antibiotic susceptibilities in Escherichia coli.
-Prevalent phenotypes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at an Indian tertiary care hospital: plasmid-mediated cefoxitin resistance.
-Cellphones as reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens.
-A case of fatal acute pyogenic meningitis in a neonate caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella group B.
-Significance of isolation and drug susceptibility testing of non-Candida albicans species causing oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV patients.
-Small and lethal: searching for new antibacterial compounds with novel modes of action.
-On detection and assessment of statistical significance of Genomic Islands.
-A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls.
-Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains isolated before 1992 from Varanasi, India are multiple drug resistant, contain intSXT, dfr18 and aadA5 genes.
-Emerging resistance to newer antimicrobial agents among Shigella isolated from Finnish foreign travellers.
-Antimicrobial protein from Streptomyces fulvissimus inhibitory to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
-Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital.
-Detection of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M extended spectrum beta-lactamases from a tertiary care hospital in south India.
-Need for national/regional guidelines and policies in India to combat antibiotic resistance.
-ESBLs detection in clinical microbiology: why & how?
-Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production in clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp.
-Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
-Sequence analysis of bla CTX-M-28 , an ESBL responsible for third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, for the first time in India.
-Spectrum of microbial flora in diabetic foot ulcers.
-Incidence of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diabetes and cancer patients.
-Emergence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a community-based fever surveillance from Kolkata, India.
-Enteric fever in Mumbai--clinical profile, sensitivity patterns and response to antimicrobials.
-Diarrhoeal outbreak of Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba in Delhi.
-The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in mesh repair of primary inguinal hernias using prolene hernia system: a randomized prospective double-blind control trial.
-Antimycobacterial activities of novel 2-(sub)-3-fluoro/nitro-5,12-dihydro-5-oxobenzothiazolo[3,2-a]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid.
-Staphylococcus aureus ocular isolates from symptomatic adverse events: antibiotic resistance and similarity of bacteria causing adverse events.
-Quinolone resistance among Shigella spp. isolated from travellers returning from India.
-Pneumocephalus as a complication of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis.
-Occurrence and detection of AmpC beta lactamases among clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing UTI.
-Low recovery rates of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci could be attributable to restricted usage of aminoglycosides in Indian settings.
-Stomatococcus mucilaginosus meningitis in a healthy 2-month-old child.

-Emergence of tetracycline-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba, in Kolkata, India.
-Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria meningitidis--Minnesota and North Dakota, 2007-2008.
-Dissemination of clonally related Escherichia coli strains expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15.
-Metallo beta lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species.
-Inhibition of DNA gyrase activity by Mycobacterium smegmatis MurI.
-Role of beta-lactamase inhibitors in enterobacterial isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
-High nasopharyngeal carriage of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in north Indian school-going children.
-The yejABEF operon of Salmonella confers resistance to antimicrobial peptides and contributes to its virulence.
-Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease.
-Resistance in gram-negative bacilli in a cardiac intensive care unit in India: risk factors and outcome.
-Microbiological profile of donor corneas: a retrospective study from an eye bank in north India.
-Preparation & characterization of solid inclusion complex of cefpodoxime proxetil with beta-cyclodextrin.
-High level ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from blood.
-Changing patterns of Vibrio cholerae in sevagram between 1990 and 2005.
-Piperine analogs as potent Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors.
-Rising standards for tuberculosis drug development.
-Transcriptional activation and increased mRNA stability contribute to overexpression of CDR1 in azole-resistant Candida albicans.
-High rate of detection of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci from urinary tract specimens in South India.

-Metallo beta lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species.
-Orthodox and unorthodox clavulanate combinations against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers.
-Prevalence and clonality of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Asia.

Non-Human and General-2008.

-Evaluation of the probiotic characteristics of newly isolated lactic acid bacteria.
-Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Diarrheic Calves in Gujarat,India.
-Detection of conjugative plasmids and antibiotic resistance genes in anthropogenic soils from Germany and India.
-Need for guidelines and policies in India to combat Antibiotic Resistance
-Diversity of root associated microorganisms of selected medicinal plants and influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum.
-Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Phragmites australis.
-Antibiotic use, environment and antibiotic resistance: A qualitative study among human and veterinary health care professionals in Orissa, India.
-Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Phragmites australis growing in constructed wetland for distillery effluent treatment.
-In vitro activity of eugenol, an active component from Ocimum sanctum, against multiresistant and susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
-Synergism between natural products and antibiotics against infectious diseases.
-Phosphinothricin resistance in Aspergillus niger and its utility as a selectable transformation marker.
-Utility of lytic bacteriophage in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia in mice.
-Conjugative plasmids in multi-resistant bacterial isolates from Indian soil.
-Selection of genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis upregulated during residence in lungs of infected mice.
-Contamination of potable water distribution systems by multiantimicrobial-resistant enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.
-Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts.
-Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from imported seafood.
-Utilization of Bombyx mori larvae as a surrogate animal model for evaluation of the anti-infective potential of oxazolidinones.