Join Indian initiative for management of antibiotic resistance (IIMAR)

To join visit . Donations, Abstracts of papers or other related information, Notices of events are welcome. For this, Send email to As a good source of material on antibiotic resistance visit

Saturday, September 15, 2018

Blending self-motivation among healthcare workers to maintain hygiene at a tertiary care hospital in Madhya Pradesh, India
Dr. Megha Sharma, Associate Professor, R. D.Gardi Medical College Ujjain, MP, India
Improving compliance of hand hygiene is a matter of a complex behavior change process. Knowledge, awareness and self-motivation are pre-requisites to change the hygiene practices1,2.Hand hygiene is a gold standard to prevent infections and to overcome its consequences such as increased cost of treatment and development of antibiotic resistance.WHO Global Action plan clearly states the importance of maintaining Hand hygiene in healthcare settings and in community3.
The healthcare workers at C.R. Gardi Hospital and Ujjain Charitable Trust Hospital and Research Center had been a part a programme named- ‘Improving Hygiene’ which is aimed to encourage, improve and maintain hygiene in day-to-day life of the healthcare workers and the community. Alcohol based hand rub (Micro Kavach) was prepared in-house and successfully introduced in the hospital in 20111. Repeated training sessions are being conducted by Dr. Megha Sharma and her hygiene team for all categories of healthcare professionals and the community1,4. The training sessions include introduction, demonstration and practice ofthe WHOrecommended hand washing and hand rubbing techniques.
During these training sessions innovative ideas are implemented for better compliance of hygiene such as hygiene cross word puzzles and one to one meetings to prepare peer trainers. Reminders to perform hygiene actions are given using posters and mobiles’ Short Message Service (SMS). The need to inculcate self-motivation was felt and thus a strategic plan was developed. The plan was pilot tested where all nursing staff was encouraged to act as peer models for one day in a week.
The nursing staff of each ward was told to decide the most convenient time of a day in a week to perform the activity. At the selected time, the staff of the ward (duty doctors, nurses and auxiliary) stood in an open area and demonstrated the steps of hand hygiene to all patients, care takers, doctors, and nurses. After demonstration, the importance of maintaining hygiene and information about following standard precautions was also provided to the caregivers.
The whole process takes 5 minutes per week in total and is being appreciated by all categories of care givers and care receivers.During regular feedback meetings with Dr. M. Sharma, the healthcare workers stated that their commitment for maintaining hygiene has improved following these weekly self- motivating exercises and they feel as the leaders of the Hygiene campaign.
1.    A step-wise approach towards introduction of an alcoholbasedhandrub, and implementation of front line ownership- using a, rural, tertiary care hospital in central India as a model. Sharma M, Joshi R, Shah H, Macaden R and Stålsby-Lundborg C. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015 Apr 29;15(1):182. doi: 10.1186/s12913-015-0840-1. PMID: 25924956 Published 29 April 2015
2.    Qualitative study on perceptions on hand hygiene among hospital staff in a rural teaching hospital in India. Joshi SC, Diwan V, Tamhankar AJ, Joshi R, Shah H, Sharma M, Pathak A, Macaden R, Stålsby-Lundborg C. J Hospi Infect (2012) 80(4), 340-344. Doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2011.12.017. PMID: 22321723
3.    Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance.  (Accessed on 13th September 2018)
4.    Workshop on Hand hygiene at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Bhopal. (Accessed on 13th September 2018)

Tuesday, October 24, 2017

India`s First Nationwide Antimicrobial Resistance Awareness Campaign
Indian Initiative for Management of Antibiotic Resistance (IIMAR)
Antimicrobial Resistance Awareness Week
November 13th to 19th, 2017

Dr. Ashok  Tamhankar 
National Coordinator, IIMAR
You can view the progress of the campaign on the map at   IIMAR`s Antibiotic Resistance Awareness campaign 2017

IIMAR has planned to conduct India’s first nationwide antimicrobial resistance awareness campaign during November 13th to 19th, 2017 in association with Doctors For You -DFY, Mumbai and Antibiotic Resistance Lab, VIT university, Vellore. WHO has announced world antibiotic awareness week during Nov, 13th-19th, 2017 with a theme “Seek advice from a qualified healthcare professional before taking antibiotics” and we will emphasize this in our campaign.
In line with the thought process of the "Action against Antimicrobial Resistance operationalization plan consultation" held in Delhi, we propose to organize a sensitisation and awareness campaign among medical, nursing and pharmacy workforce and general public across states in India.
The campaign will involve components such as lectures, videos, distribution of pamphlets/ brochures, poster making competition, slogan competition, essay competition,  media campaigns, internet based social media etc.
We also plan to disseminate the antibiotic resistance awareness message through community radio stations across India.
We invite you to join and help us in any way you can (human resource, materials, funds etc as per your wish).  Please mail us at or

Wednesday, July 26, 2017


Archana L, Prasanth M, Shanthini T, Ramesh N, A.J.Tamhankar
Colistin the last defence of antibiotics has procured resistance to most of the Gram negative pathogens; the first emerging case was reported in china, now the vast majority of the nations around 30 nations in the world are encountering resistance, in which 44% of cases are reported in India. This Colistin was found from the 40 years old exile in the year 2005. Till date the carbapenem resistance was reported increasingly all over the world, which was treated by the colistin - the high end antibiotics. The real reason that made the boundless procuring of resistance to colistin was because of indiscriminate utilization of the antibiotics to the horticulture field, poultry cultivation in China that caused a selective pressure among the pathogens bringing about versatile resistance, hence to this worry china prohibited the utilization of antibiotics to the field in 2016.
Initial reports of colistin resistance were in Acinetobacter isolates. The colistin resistances in Gram negative bacteria were reported in India, especially for Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, P. aeruginosa, of which 25% were due to the colonization rather than acquired infection. A few investigations observed inhaled colistin to be in charge of the resistance to colistin particularly in pseudomonas infection of the lungs. The innate of the resistance is not only in view of the ecological factors alone, they can be a result of numerous things in which report by UC Santa Clause Barbara scholar Michael Mahan says that the invitro and invivo method of study varies significantly in which the present antibiotic assay standardized in 1961 by the World Health Organization and utilized around the world is conceivably defective. Presently, Mahan and co-workers have utilized a mouse model to show that an assortment of anti-infection agents work distinctively against different pathogens when inside the mammalian body. So there is a need for the development of same environment in-vitro as in-vivo to determine the exact antibiotic for treatment. Their findings was mentioned in the journal of EBioMedicine
On Jun 28, 2017 the research team in China has found another new gene (mcr-3) that presents resistance to colistin that was found from the fecal sample of healthy pig. The gene was gathered from colistin resistance Escherichia coli, on the plasmid that contained 18 extra antibiotic resistance genes. The major concern about colistin is that they have highly mobile pieces of DNA that can be shared within and between different classes of species which depicts that it can spread very fast without any selective pressure. One of the major concerns about mcr-1 and its offshoots is that it's often located on plasmids that contain other antibiotic resistance genes. That raises the possibility of bacterial infections that will not respond to any antibiotic.
Among current endeavors to address this issue, phage therapy offers a promising contrasting option to battle infection caused by colistin resistant organisms. Compared with other conventional therapeutic approaches, phage therapy could be more effective in treating emerging resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. It can kill the biofilm forming bacteria also have low inherent toxicities. It generally do not affect beneficial bacteria, side-effects are uncommon in phages and do not affect eukaryotic cells.

Monday, June 19, 2017

             Protocol of A Study of Antibiotic and Metal Residues, Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Genes, in the River ‘Kshipra’- Associated with Religious Mass  Bathing  event ‘KUMBH MELA’  in India

Dr. Ashok J. Tamhankar

Protocols of studies undertaken by researchers are not generally published from India. 
Mahadik, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg and Ashok J. Tamhankar affiliated to R.D. Gardi Medical college   Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh and Karolinska Institutet at Stockholm in Sweden recently published the protocol for a three year study for detecting Our research group consisting of Drs. Vishal Diwan , ManjuPurohit, SaleshChandran, VivekParashar, Harshada Shah, Vijay Antibiotic and Metal Residues, Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Genes, from the river Kshipra flowing through Ujjain city which is  famous for its religious mass bathing events particularly the KUMBH MELA which is held every twelve years. We took advantage of the  KUMBH MELA event that occurred in 2016 and conducted studies during that time. 

Antibiotic resistance  has been declared by the WHO as a major health emergency of the 21st century for the global society. Little is known about the Antibiotic resistance  of environmental bacteria and therefore it is important to understand Antibiotic resistance  reservoirs in the environment and their potential impact on health. We have therefore undertaken a study involving Quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection for a 3-year period, of the Kshipra river that is associated with religious mass-bathing in Central India. Surface-water and sediment samples are being collected from seven locations at regular intervals for to monitor water-quality, antibiotic and metals residues, resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. The results will address the issue of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance with a focus on river environment in India within a typical socio-behavioural context of religious mass-bathing. It will enhance our understanding about the relationship between antibiotic and heavy metal residue levels, water-quality, and antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from river-water and sediment, that are associated with seasonal differences and religious mass-bathing. We will also document, identify and clarify the genetic differences/similarities relating to phenotypic antibiotic resistance in bacteria, the resistance genes in circulation in the river during religious mass-bathing or during periods when there is no mass-bathing.

Indian Antibiotic Resistance Scenario - 2008 (by A.J. Tamhankar)

From the Scientific Journals


-Antibiotic resistance calls for better diagnostic labs.
-Antibiotic resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in India.
-Antibiotic resistance pattern of group-a beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from north Indian children.

-Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special reference to India.
-Incidence of metallo beta lactamase producing Pseudomonas
aeruginosa in ICU patients.
-Estimation of faecal carriage of Clostridium difficile in patients
with ulcerative colitis using RT-PCR.

-Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase from clinical isolates in Davangere.
-A study on nosocomial pathogens in ICU with special reference to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii harbouring multiple plasmids.
-Enterococcal infections & antimicrobial resistance.
-Changing pattern of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in a tertiary care hospital: A 5 year retrospective study.
-Antibiotic sensitivity pattern in cases of enteric fever.
-Functional assignment to JEV proteins using SVM.
-High rate of mutation K103N causing resistance to nevirapine.
-Increased prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase producers in neonatal septicaemic cases.
-Correlation between biofilm production and multiple drug resistance in imipenem resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.
-Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates producing VEB-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
-Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against second-line drugs using the Bactec MGIT 960 System.
-Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA252).
-Study of metallo-beta-lactamase production in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
-Occurrence of ESBL & Amp-C b-lactamases & susceptibility to newer antimicrobial agents in complicated UTI.
-Pneumonia in a traveller coming back from Asia.
-Rising prevalence of enteric fever due to multidrug-resistant Salmonella.
-Risk factors for antibiotic-resistant E. coli in children in a rural area.
-Status of high level aminoglycoside resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.
-Synergy of gatifloxacin with cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam against resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
-The cost-effectiveness of typhoid Vi vaccination programs.
-The influence of glucose added urine on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of various antibiotics.
-Trend of antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae strains from East Delhi.
-Triple therapy-based targeted nanoparticles for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.
-Tigecycline in-vitro susceptibility and antibiotics' fitness for gram-negative pathogens.
-Antibiotic resistance pattern of group-a beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from north Indian children.
-Detection and identification of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
-Changing characteristics of Vibrio cholerae: emergence of multidrug resistance and non-O1, non-O139 serogroups.
-Dental therapeutic systems.
-Incidence of metallo beta lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ICU patients.
-Antibiotic prescribing practices in primary and secondary health care facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India.
-Mycobacterium tuberculosis interactome analysis unravels potential pathways to drug resistance.
-TEM & SHV genes in extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella species beta their antimicrobial resistance pattern.
-TargetTB: a target identification pipeline for Mycobacterium tuberculosis through an interactome, reactome and genome-scale structural analysis.
-Detection of virulence genes in Vibrio cholerae isolated from aquatic environment in Kerala, Southern India.
-Bacterial persistence: some new insights into an old phenomenon.
-Down regulation of gyrase A gene expression in E. coli by antisense ribozymes using RT-PCR.
-Novel mutations in emb B gene of ethambutol resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a preliminary report.
-A potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from Dioscorea bulbifera L. against multidrug-resistant bacteria.
-RpoN gene, RAPD profile, antimicrobial resistance and plasmids of Vibrio anguillarum isolates from vibriosis infected Penaeus monodon.
-Novel and potent oxazolidinone antibacterials featuring 3-indolylglyoxamide substituents.
-Enhancement of the efficacy of erythromycin in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacterial pathogens.
-Zinc and antibiotic resistance: metallo-beta-lactamases and their synthetic analogues.
-Changing trends in bacteriology of peritonsillar abscess.
-Incidence of bacterial enteropathogens among hospitalized diarrhea patients from Orissa, India.
-Moonlighting function of glutamate racemase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: racemization and DNA gyrase inhibition are two independent activities of the enzyme.
-Substituted 3-((Z)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) vinyl)-4H-chromen-4-ones as novel anti-MRSA agents: synthesis, SAR, and in-vitro assessment.
-Antimicrobial stewardship in institutions and office practices.
-Tigecycline: a critical update.
-Cefoxitin disc diffusion test for detection of meticillin-resistant staphylococci.
-In-vitro antimycobacterial drug susceptibility testing of non-tubercular mycobacteria by tetrazolium microplate assay.
-Differential expression of ompC and ompF in multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri by aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos, altering its susceptibility toward beta-lactam antibiotics.
-Comparative bacteriology of acute and chronic dacryocystitis.
-Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: current challenges and threats.
-Prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance in gram positive organisms in a tertiary care centre.
-Assessment of pheromone response in biofilm forming clinical isolates of high level gentamicin resistant Enterococcus faecalis.
-Incidence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diabetes and cancer patients.
-Evaluation of rapid MTT tube method for detection of drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rifampicin and isoniazid.
-Phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates by using the lower limit of recommended inter-disk distance.
-Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase and AmpC beta lactamase producers among Escherichia coli isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.
-Empiric antibiotic therapy in children with community-acquired pneumonia.
-Comparison of the radiometric BACTEC 460 TB culture system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium for the isolation of mycobacteria in cutaneous tuberculosis and their drug susceptibility pattern.
-Molecular cloning, overexpression and biochemical characterization of hypothetical beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.
-Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella species isolated from epidemic and endemic cases of shigellosis in India.
-Epidemiological evidence of multidrug-resistant Shigella sonnei colonization in India by sentinel surveillance in a Japanese quarantine station.
-Aminoglycoside-resistance mechanisms in multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates.
-Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from peripheral health centres and STD clinic attendees of a tertiary care centre in India.
-Novel structural analogues of piperine as inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.
-Salmonella enterica Serotype typhi in Kuwait and its reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.
-Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of 4-[5-(substituted phenyl)-4, 5-dihydro-3-isoxazolyl]-2-methylphenols.
-Observations on carbapenem resistance by minimum inhibitory concentration in nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter species: an experience at a tertiary care hospital in North India.
-A simple and effective approach for the treatment of chronic wound infections caused by multiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli.
-Cefepime and its role in pediatric infections.
-Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of resistance phenotypes of Neisseria gonorrheae in India.

-Stationary phase induced alterations in mycobacterial RNA polymerase assembly: A cue to its phenotypic resistance towards rifampicin.
-Epidemiology, etiology, and diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in Asian countries.
-Involvement of O8-antigen in altering beta-lactam antibiotic susceptibilities in Escherichia coli.
-Prevalent phenotypes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at an Indian tertiary care hospital: plasmid-mediated cefoxitin resistance.
-Cellphones as reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens.
-A case of fatal acute pyogenic meningitis in a neonate caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella group B.
-Significance of isolation and drug susceptibility testing of non-Candida albicans species causing oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV patients.
-Small and lethal: searching for new antibacterial compounds with novel modes of action.
-On detection and assessment of statistical significance of Genomic Islands.
-A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls.
-Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains isolated before 1992 from Varanasi, India are multiple drug resistant, contain intSXT, dfr18 and aadA5 genes.
-Emerging resistance to newer antimicrobial agents among Shigella isolated from Finnish foreign travellers.
-Antimicrobial protein from Streptomyces fulvissimus inhibitory to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
-Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital.
-Detection of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M extended spectrum beta-lactamases from a tertiary care hospital in south India.
-Need for national/regional guidelines and policies in India to combat antibiotic resistance.
-ESBLs detection in clinical microbiology: why & how?
-Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production in clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp.
-Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
-Sequence analysis of bla CTX-M-28 , an ESBL responsible for third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, for the first time in India.
-Spectrum of microbial flora in diabetic foot ulcers.
-Incidence of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diabetes and cancer patients.
-Emergence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a community-based fever surveillance from Kolkata, India.
-Enteric fever in Mumbai--clinical profile, sensitivity patterns and response to antimicrobials.
-Diarrhoeal outbreak of Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba in Delhi.
-The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in mesh repair of primary inguinal hernias using prolene hernia system: a randomized prospective double-blind control trial.
-Antimycobacterial activities of novel 2-(sub)-3-fluoro/nitro-5,12-dihydro-5-oxobenzothiazolo[3,2-a]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid.
-Staphylococcus aureus ocular isolates from symptomatic adverse events: antibiotic resistance and similarity of bacteria causing adverse events.
-Quinolone resistance among Shigella spp. isolated from travellers returning from India.
-Pneumocephalus as a complication of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis.
-Occurrence and detection of AmpC beta lactamases among clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing UTI.
-Low recovery rates of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci could be attributable to restricted usage of aminoglycosides in Indian settings.
-Stomatococcus mucilaginosus meningitis in a healthy 2-month-old child.

-Emergence of tetracycline-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba, in Kolkata, India.
-Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria meningitidis--Minnesota and North Dakota, 2007-2008.
-Dissemination of clonally related Escherichia coli strains expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15.
-Metallo beta lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species.
-Inhibition of DNA gyrase activity by Mycobacterium smegmatis MurI.
-Role of beta-lactamase inhibitors in enterobacterial isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
-High nasopharyngeal carriage of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in north Indian school-going children.
-The yejABEF operon of Salmonella confers resistance to antimicrobial peptides and contributes to its virulence.
-Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease.
-Resistance in gram-negative bacilli in a cardiac intensive care unit in India: risk factors and outcome.
-Microbiological profile of donor corneas: a retrospective study from an eye bank in north India.
-Preparation & characterization of solid inclusion complex of cefpodoxime proxetil with beta-cyclodextrin.
-High level ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from blood.
-Changing patterns of Vibrio cholerae in sevagram between 1990 and 2005.
-Piperine analogs as potent Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors.
-Rising standards for tuberculosis drug development.
-Transcriptional activation and increased mRNA stability contribute to overexpression of CDR1 in azole-resistant Candida albicans.
-High rate of detection of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci from urinary tract specimens in South India.

-Metallo beta lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species.
-Orthodox and unorthodox clavulanate combinations against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers.
-Prevalence and clonality of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Asia.

Non-Human and General-2008.

-Evaluation of the probiotic characteristics of newly isolated lactic acid bacteria.
-Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Diarrheic Calves in Gujarat,India.
-Detection of conjugative plasmids and antibiotic resistance genes in anthropogenic soils from Germany and India.
-Need for guidelines and policies in India to combat Antibiotic Resistance
-Diversity of root associated microorganisms of selected medicinal plants and influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum.
-Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Phragmites australis.
-Antibiotic use, environment and antibiotic resistance: A qualitative study among human and veterinary health care professionals in Orissa, India.
-Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Phragmites australis growing in constructed wetland for distillery effluent treatment.
-In vitro activity of eugenol, an active component from Ocimum sanctum, against multiresistant and susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
-Synergism between natural products and antibiotics against infectious diseases.
-Phosphinothricin resistance in Aspergillus niger and its utility as a selectable transformation marker.
-Utility of lytic bacteriophage in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia in mice.
-Conjugative plasmids in multi-resistant bacterial isolates from Indian soil.
-Selection of genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis upregulated during residence in lungs of infected mice.
-Contamination of potable water distribution systems by multiantimicrobial-resistant enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.
-Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts.
-Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from imported seafood.
-Utilization of Bombyx mori larvae as a surrogate animal model for evaluation of the anti-infective potential of oxazolidinones.